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SPSS聚类分析是否需要对数据进行标准化处理?
头像 数据小兵 数据仓库
数据仓库

    为了从不同的角度反映一组数据的特征,我们往往追求更多的指标,这些数据单位不同,数量级也不同,这就需要我们在开始分析之前 对数据进行标准化处理。聚类分析就经常遇到,因为聚类就是利用多个指标来对样本进行分类的统计方法。

    那么,SPSS聚类分析是否需要对数据进行标准化处理呢?经常有人提问。


    首先,从聚类分析的概念上来判断

    聚类的要求是同一类的样本有较大的相似性,不同类的样本有较大的差异性。那如何才算是有相似性呢?这里经常用的就是判断点与点之间的距离是不是很近或者有相关性,只要是用距离来判断,就涉及到不同指标的运算,而量纲和数量级上的差异对距离的判断有很大的影响,为了消除这种影响,因此在聚类前需要对数据进行标准化处理。

有一种例外情况,如果采用相关系数来衡量个体的相似性,可以不做标准化处理,也留给大家讨论。
 

    其次,我们从聚类操作对话框来看

    SPSS软件封装了3种聚类方法,TwoStep、Kmeans、Hierarchical。

先来看TwoStep聚类,如下图对话框。

    SPSS明确指出需要对连续变量进行标准化操作,这个选项非常适合初学者,把数据质量的因素直接考虑进去,我们只需要按照提示一步步来完成即可。

    

    再来看Kmeans聚类,如下图,

     我们发现,SPSS并没有在这个过程中预装标准化操作,因此对于刚接触SPSS的人来说,就会造成一定的困惑或者麻烦,会认为完全按照spss的菜单项操作就可万无一失,从这一例子来看,SPSS初学者一定不能有这样的惰性思维,SPSS为我们提供便捷菜单操作的同时,我们仍然不能放弃基本的数据分析思维。

     再看Hierarchical聚类过程,对话框如下图,

    spss同样预装了数据标准化操作,SPSS菜单操作的便捷一目了然。
 

    数据小兵博客总结

    讲到这里,大家对这个问题应该比较清晰。小兵再次提醒大家,不管SPSS是否在菜单选项中提供数据标准化处理,作为分析师,首先我们要有提前标准化的思维习惯,数据标准化也是数据预处理中的一项重要工作。

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